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St Pauls Cathedral

 

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  • The cathedral runs west to east from the Great West Door. The nave has three small chapels in the two adjoining aisles - All Souls and St Dunstan's in the north aisle and the Chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in the south aisle. The main space of the cathedral is centred under the Dome, it rises 108.4 metres from the cathedral floor and holds three circular galleries - the internal Whispering Gallery, the external Stone Gallery and the external Golden Gallery. The Quire extends to the east of the Dome and holds the stalls for the clergy and the choir as well as the cathedral's organ. The organ was first commissioned in 1694 and the current instrument is the third biggest in Britain with 7,189 pipes and 138 stops; it is enclosed in an impressive case built by Grinling Gibbons. To the north and south of the dome are the transepts of the North Quire and the South Quire. The cathedral has a very substantial crypt holding over 200 memorials as well as the OBE Chapel and the Treasury; Christopher Wren was the first person to be interred (in 1723). The cathedral has very few treasures, many have been lost and in 1810 a major robbery took almost all of the remaining precious artefacts.
  • Ludgate Hill itself has long been associated with religion. It is believed that it was originally the site of an ancient megalith and then later a temple dedicated to the goddess Diana, in alignment with the Apollo Temple which once stood at Westminster.
  • A religious structure dedicated to Saint Paul has existed in London since 604. It has been damaged or destroyed on a number of occasions but has been doggedly rebuilt. The first cathedral was destroyed by fire in 675 and the second was ransacked and then destroyed by Viking forces in 962. Old St Paul's was built by the Normans in their characteristic style from 1087 and it was completed in 1310. It was the largest church in England and the third largest in Europe. The church had the highest steeple in Europe until 1561 when it was destroyed by fire following a lightning strike and was never rebuilt, the building then slowly fell into general disrepair. The Norman structure otherwise survived until 1666 when, scheduled for demolition, it was completely destroyed in the Great Fire of London.
  • The task of designing a replacement structure was assigned to Christopher Wren in 1668 along with over fifty other churches. His first design in the shape of a Greek cross was rejected as too radical in 1669 and his second proposal was turned down in 1673 before his 'warrant' design was accepted in 1675 and building work began in June. The Wren cathedral was completed by 1710 (although the first service was held on December 2, 1697) and has survived until the present day, despite being targeted during the Blitz (it was struck by a bomb on October 9, 1940 but survived). Wren achieved a pleasing appearance for the dome by actually building three domes. The tall outer dome is non-structural but impressive to view. The lower inner dome provides an artistically balanced interior. Between the two is a structural cone which supports the apex structure and the outer dome panelling.
  • The cathedral is open to the public, though there is a charge for non-worshipping visitors. In 2000, the cathedral began a major restoration programme, scheduled for completion in 2008, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of its opening. The restoration programme is expected to cost 40 million, and involves not only repair and cleaning of the building, but also improvement of visitor facilities - such as accessibility for the disabled, and provision of additional educational facilities.

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Architect
Sir Christopher Wren
Developer
The Diocese of London
Main Contractor
The Worshipful Company of Masons

Reference Data

Reference No.
191
First Uploaded
19-02-2006
Last Editorial Date
16-01-2015
 

Building Location

Address
St Paul's Churchyard, London. EC2
Council
City of London
County
London
Region
London
Country
United Kingdom

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Building Specification

Status
Complete
Proposal date
1668
Construction start date
1677
Completion date
1711
Renovation Date
2008
Heritage Status
Grade I
Style
Baroque

Pinnacle Height (AGL)
111.00
Pinnacle Type
Spire
Roof Height (AGL)
108.40
Top Floor Height (AGL)
53.40

Market Data

Primary Use
Place of Worship

Floorspace (sq m)
7,875.00

Construction Cost
£1,095,556.00
Budget Date
1711

Metres > Feet